What Type of Algae Can Grow on Trees?

Although algae is usually an aquatic plant, some species can receive free of the water and develop terrestrially on the bark, stems and leaves of trees. Algae most commonly develop trees in moist tropical climates, but many species can develop trees also in temperate subtropical climates.


Trentepohlia is a genus of algae that includes about 40 species that frequently grow on trees in tropical and humid subtropical climates. This algae is free-living and terrestrial, and in temperate climates it is most frequently found growing on the bark of trees ; in wetter tropical climates, it may also develop on leaf surfaces. Most species contain an orange pigment that conceals the green colour of their chlorophyll; the algae grows in long filaments, and colonies of the algae seem as brightly coloured orange mounds on the tree bark.


Algae of the Cephaleuros genus, together with Trentepohlia, are part of the order Trentepohliales. Like Trentepohlia, Cephaleuros are terrestrial species; they only require water to germinate, therefore they are well-adapted to living on trees instead of in an aquatic environment. Cephaleuros species, like Trentepohlia, contain a orange pigment, and they vary in color from yellow-green to orange. Some species of Cephaleuros may cause blurred red spots on tree leaves, and the infection may be known as “red rust”


Stomatochroon is just another part of Trentepohliales, but it differs from Trentepohlia and Cephaleuros in that it grows not to the surface of bark or leaves, but inside the leaf itself in the chambers beneath the pores, or stomata, on the leaf surface. The algae is visible only as it sends up an enlarged “central mobile” that endeavors through the stoma.

Phycopeltis and Physolinum

These two genera are also part of Trentepohliales. The species within these genera typically develop on the surface of leaves, but in humid areas where moist surfaces are common, they can develop everywhere, even on tree permeable and bark objects.


Lichen is a structure that commonly grows on trees; it’s due to a symbiotic relationship between fungi and algae. The fungus provides a construction that collects water and nutrients that the algae takes advantage of ; the algae in turn uses its chlorophyll to produce food for both the fungus. Species of the Trentepohlia genus are commonly found in lichens.

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How Much Sun Does Yellow Barberry Need?

Barberry shrubs (Berberis thunbergii), also known as Japanese barberries, are exceptionally difficult, easy-to-grow, versatile plants which have many different uses in a house landscape. A high number of barberry cultivars can be found, several notable because of their brightly colored, golden-yellow foliage. These attractive shrubs have few requirements, but require a lot of sunlight the keep their bright colours.

Barberry Characteristics

The barberry bush gets its name from the ample thorns that cover its branches, making it a particularly good choice as part of a hurdle planting. Barberries are deciduous and generally have dense foliage. They’re usually one of the first shrubs to demonstrate new leaves in the spring. All barberries have inconspicuous flowers, followed by red berries in the autumn. Standard types of barberry trees have green leaves which change to red or orange in autumn. Yellow varieties have vibrant leaves which do particularly well in summer heat, which can scorch leaves on standard cultivars, and usually retain their yellow colour into autumn.


Foliage on yellowish barberry bushes keeps its bright shade best when the plant is grown at a place that receives sunlight for most of the day. Some light colour during the day will not interfere with the plant’s growth or health, but its bright and vibrant foliage is likely to turn into a greenish shade when sunlight is not constant. For compact cultivars, a website in the front of a sunlit tree boundary is best. Taller varieties can do well as specimens in full sun or at the back of a sunny bed, providing other plants nearer the front are spaced well apart and never likely to colour the barberry bushes.

Other Conditions

Yellow barberry shrubs grow well in any kind of soil, provided it is well-drained. They require only moderate levels of moisture and can tolerate dry spells quite well. Barberry bushes should be fertilized with a balanced, overall purpose formula early in spring, before new growth appears. They’re also quite tolerant of allergens, making them excellent choices in urban areas, and have no serious insect or disease issues. Pruning is best done in late spring or early summer, after the plant’s tiny flowers have disappeared.


A number of barberry varieties with yellow foliage are sold in garden centers or through gardening catalogs. They comprise “Sunjoy Gold Pillar” and “Aurea,” both achieving a height of 3 to 4 feet with vertical growth habits; “Bonanza Gold,” also known as “Bogozam,” a compact plant only 1 1/2 feet tall; and “Golden Nugget,” a dwarf plant which reaches a height of only 12 inches and is approximately 18 inches wide. All varieties do best in U.S. Department of Agriculture hardiness zones 4 through 8.

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The Rock Salt Concentration required to Kill Plants

Rock salt and table salt are basically the same thing: sodium chloride. But rock salt is unrefined and also in bigger chunks, while table salt is ground smaller. Rock salt is frequently less expensive and may be employed to cover a bigger area if you need it to destroy plants. It can change the salinity of the soil for years, so use it on your yard with care.

Concentration in Water

It doesn’t require much rock salt to effectively kill plants in your yard. Mix 1 cup of rock salt with 2 cups of water. Add it to spray bottle or pour it straight above the plants that you want to kill. Using boiling water helps dissolve the rock salt and destroy the plants boiling water hurts their leaves like it will your skin.

Dry Concentration

Just a few grains of rock salt are sufficient to kill plants. Sprinkle the salt across the base of the plant and allow it to naturally break down at the soil’s moisture. For small weeds, like dandelions, you might only need four or three chunks. For larger plants, try out a few of this salt. It works relatively fast, so if you don’t observe the plants wilting in around 2 days, add a little more rock salt about the plants’ bases. Watering the plants shortly after adding the rock salt will allow it to dissolve into the dirt.

Soil Changes

A major problem with using rock salt even in small concentrations is that is tends to remain in the dirt for years until water leaches it outside. The salt increases soil salinity, which dehydrates the roots of plants and keeps them in absorbing nutrients that are necessary. If you include too much rock salt and it starts to change plants that you want to remain, in addition to ones that you wish to kill, start watering the plants deeply every day to try to flush the salt out of the dirt. You may not have the ability to conserve those plants, because it could take weeks of daily watering to return the ground into a feasible salinity, but it is possible to restore the dirt so that new plants may grow.

Where to Use It

Salt doesn’t always stay where it’s set — it may be washed off into your flower bed or lawn, killing large swaths of plants that you want to keep. Some salt-tolerant plants like the bigleaf hydrangea (Hydrangea macrophylla) can endure a bit of runoff, but not a complete concentration of rock salt applied nearby. Apply the salt on a day with no chance of rain to allow it to soak in where you want it without the prospect of runoff. The best places to use rock salt are those in which you don’t ever need plants to grow, like cracks in your driveway or along fence lines.

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5 Most Common Mulches

The principal purpose of mulch would be to improve the soil structure and mineral levels, and also to safeguard it from humidity and humidity changes. There’s a wide array of organic substances that work nicely as mulch for gardens and landscapes, however, a handful of these substances are used more often than the remainder of residential grounds. Five of the most commonly used mulches offer many advantages to your soil and plants, and are readily available and very affordable.

Wood Products

Wood mulch is available ground, shredded or chipped. Shredded mulch is usually made of thin strips of tree bark. Ground mulch consists of very fine to medium-sized wood particles. Ground hardwood mulch is particularly dark and rich in appearance and appears attractive in the landscape. Chipped wood mulches are coarse in texture and therefore are the most commonly available kinds of wood mulch. Soft woods like pine can increase acidity in your soil, making it ideal for mulching azaleas and other acid-loving plants. Hardwood mulch tends to become alkaline, so it is ideal for just about any sort of plant that does not need an acidic soil.


Compost is commonly used in home landscapes because it is a great soil conditioner that’s not hard to make yourself. Compost is created by combining various kinds of yard waste, such as leaves, plant debris and grass clippings, and may also include kitchen waste. The substance is mixed and left to decompose until it’s a blended material rich in nutrients. Compost is also commercially available at garden centers and greenhouses. One disadvantage of compost as mulch is the nutrient content and acidity of compost changes dependent on the substance used.

Yard Clippings

Lawn clippings are generally used as mulch since they decompose quickly, enrich the soil and also cost nothing. Lawn clippings should be applied dry, but if you want to employ new lawn clippings, spread them securely so that they don’t form a crust or mat down and heat up, which can lead to odor problems. If you’ve treated your yard with pesticides, don’t use clippings for 4 weeks after application. Whether dry or fresh, apply lawn clippings in thin layers, adding new layers per week after mowing your yard. One disadvantage to yard clippings is the potential weed seeds that could be combined with the grass, so check the soil regularly for weed seed germination to remove weeds before they become problematic.


Leafmold is a frequent mulch material that’s available in your landscape, or by municipal composting facility. It is made up of partially decomposed leavesthat are typically composted from the autumn to be prepared for use as leafmold mulch in the spring. Leafmold is an ideal mulch for adding nutrients to the soil. Newly fallen leaves may also be used, but will take some time to decompose, so nutrients aren’t as readily available to your plants as they are with leafmold.


Straw mulch made of wheat or oat grains, winter rye or hay is commonly used in residential and farm landscapes due to its availability and low price. It can be a powerful mulch material so long as it is free of weed seeds or mould. Pine straw mulch is also widely used and can be commercially available in large bales. Pine straw is made of pine needles and is a wonderful mulch material for improving soil structure and drainage. Both kinds of straw are best for preventing erosion of the soil during winter rains or as summer mulch in vegetable gardens.

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Container Fruit Tree Gardening

Growing fruit trees in containers provides an effective way for patching without the right soil or climate to grow the fruit they want from the ground. The size of fruit trees grown in containers is restricted by the size of this container. Fruit trees which are container grown require more routine care, since they’ve limited access to water and nutrients.


The drainage and space your plant container supplies limits the size of your potted tree and also has a direct effect on its long term wellbeing. You can use containers made from wood, vinyl, metal or ceramics so long as they have sufficient drainage holes. Adding drainage trays for your own potted trees is a good idea if you plan on maintaining your fruit tree indoors. You can install a layer of hardware cloth over the base of the container to prevent soil from escaping through the drainage holes.

Growing Medium

The best growing medium for fruit trees in containers is a fast-draining soil that prevents water from pooling around the roots of your fruit tree. Blending perlite, coarse sand and peat moss in equal parts supplies an effective growing medium for many fruit trees. If you are growing a fruit tree which requires an acidic soil, you may add sulfur into the mix to decrease its pH. Fruit trees grown in containers are limited to the quantity of water that the soil in your container may carry. Check the soil in your container regularly to prevent the tree from drying out. Permit the soil at the surface of the container to dry to the touch before watering it thoroughly.


Incorporating a slow-release fertilizer with a balanced combination of nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium in your potting mix provides nutrients for your own container grown fruit tree throughout the growing season. Applying supplemental doses of fertilizer twice a month ensures sustained healthy growth. Avoid using fertilizers with a high concentration of nitrogen, as strong doses of nitrogen applied to container grown trees may support your tree to grow more foliage than its root system can support.


Excess loads of fruit may stunt the tree or stop the tree in fruiting from the following calendar year. Through the first year of growth, most fruit trees cannot support more than five or six fruits at one time. Removing excess fruit ensures that the tree may maintain healthful growth and produce fruit each year.


Container grown trees may become root bound if they aren’t repotted periodically. You can remove excess roots from the outside of the root ball and repot it to prevent your tree from growing larger. If you are growing a tree you will need to move in and outside of your home on a regular basis, a wheeled plant stand can make the task easier. Over-applying fertilizer may cause a build up salt from the ground. Water your plant gradually over a period of many minutes to leach the salt out if you notice a white crust growing around the surface of the soil around your tree.

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The best way to Water Vegetable Plants Correctly

Irrigation is an important component of good vegetable growing. You can offer the ideal dirt, sunlight and fertilizer, but having uneven or too much watering, your vegetables will not produce a great crop. Do not wait to water until the leaves wilt, because this will decrease harvest yields, particularly if it happens during a crucial stage of growth, such as flower growth. Water your vegetables correctly throughout the season so you can reap a plentiful harvest.

Water newly transplanted vegetables more frequently because their roots are shallow. It could be necessary to water three to four times each week for two to three weeks to keep the dirt around the roots adequately moist. Some vegetables, such as cabbage and broccoli, remain shallow rooted even in adulthood, so frequent watering is still essential. During the warmth of summer, most vegetables will probably need several waterings weekly. Otherwise, a couple of waterings per week will suffice.

Feel the dirt with your finger, about 1 to 2 inches deep to get shallow frozen vegetables, along with 3 to 4 inches deep to get more heavily rooted vegetables, such as tomatoes and carrots. If the soil feels dry, it’s time to water. If it’s still moist, don’t water. Allowing the soil dry out a bit between watering forces the roots to grow deeper and also prevents you from over-watering your vegetables.

Water vegetables thoroughly so it seeps into the ground to encourage deeper, stronger root systems. For shallow-rooted vegetables, water with about 1 inch of water. For deeply frozen vegetables, water with 1 to 2 inches of water. When watering, do so at the base of the plants, even if possible, to prevent fungal diseases that can develop on the foliage. Water vegetables in the morning so that the foliage can dry out during the day.

Quit watering vegetables, such as onions, potatoes and winter squash, near the end of growing season if they will need to heal or dry out before harvesting.

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Slow Growth Avocado Trees

Healthful avocado trees (Persea americana ) don’t grow gradually. In reality, roughly 36 inches each year grow. Pruning branches out to try and control expansion promotes the tree. Pruning also eradicates the abundance of leaves the tree demands for avoidance and return of sunscald. Avocado trees provide shade and only produce fruit in sites with full sun.

Dwarf Trees

A potential solution to the speedy growth of avocado trees at U.S. Department of Agriculture plant hardiness zones 10 and 11 is planting dwarf trees. They don’t grow as tall as avocado trees, but still grow at a rate of approximately 36 inches each year. The most productive and best exterior rainbow avocado tree assortment is”Gwen.” It does well in containers and develops 14 feet tall. “Whitsell” reaches 12 feet tall, bears fruit every other year and generally just does well outside in containers or in a greenhouse.

Short Avocado Trees

The variety drymifolia and the cultivar”Mexicola” typically grow 35 feet tall, but some specimens of both of these trees have grown 72 feet tall. Both have reduced canopies that form an oblong, curved or umbrella shape. Drymifolia has expansion, resists oak root canal and develops in USDA hardiness zones 9 and 10. “Mexicola” bears small fruit with top quality flesh and contains large seeds. It’s the hardiest cultivar recovers rapidly from frost damage and known. “Mexicola” defoliates at 20 degrees Fahrenheit, the trunk expires at 17 degrees Fahrenheit and it does best in USDA hardiness zones 8a through 10.

Thin-Skinned Fruit

“Duke” and”Fuerte” have thin-skinned fruit and generally develop 50 feet tall, but some specimens of both of these trees have attained 72 feet tall. Both have curved, oval or umbrella-shaped canopies. “Duke” has branches that resist breaking in temperate places as well as the fruit has excellent flesh. It develops in USDA hardiness zones 9 through 10a and recovers from frosts down to 22 degrees Fahrenheit. “Fuerte” bears large fruit with good flesh, but occasionally only in alternate years. It resists frost down and develops in USDA hardiness zones 8.

Thick-Skinned Fruit

“Hass” and”Pinkerton” have thick-skinned fruit and generally develop 50 feet tall, but some specimens of both of these trees have grown 72 feet tall. “Hass” bears medium-sized fruit with great flesh that are the current industry standard. It’s more sensitive to damage from weather and only resists temperatures down to 30 degrees Fahrenheit. “Pinkerton” prolifically creates variable sized fruit. It resists frost damage to 30 degrees Fahrenheit better than”Hass” does, also develops in USDA hardiness zones 8 through 10.

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Outdoor Green Plants With Berries

Outdoor plants with attractive green leaf add color to your yard when acting as a focal point, drop, barrier or privacy screen. Several species of the stunning plants also produce showy berries that incorporate a blast of color to the region. When choosing which outside green plant to develop, consider the growing demands of the plant as well as also the needs of your garden.

Sun-Loving Plants

Sun-loving green plants with berries thrive in outdoor places that have eight or more hours of sunlight a day. “Profusion” beautyberry (Callicarpa bodinieri “Profusion”) is a breathtaking deciduous shrub growing in U.S. Department of Agriculture plant hardiness zones 5 through 8, reaching six feet tall. This sun-loving plant contains large green leaf and purple-pink blossoms. In the fall, clusters of violet cosmetic berries show up on the branches. Found in sunny regions in USDA zones 6 through 9, “Mohave” pyracantha (Pyracantha x “Mohave”) is a quick growing shrub that may grow as tall as 12 feet. It has deep green leaves and masses of bright orangish-red berries in the fall.

Shade-Loving Plants

Green plants with strawberries will brighten up shaded gardens with their attractive foliage and vibrant fruit. “Rozannie” Japanese aucuba (Aucuba japonica “Rozannie”) requires complete shade in USDA zones 6 through 10 to develop properly. It’s a compact form, reaching 3 feet tall and wide, and produces deep green, shiny foliage and bright red berries that appear in the fall. Reeves skimmia (Skimmia reevesiana) is just another shade-loving plant with dark green leathery foliage. This compact 2-foot-tall shrub grows in USDA zones 7 through 9, bearing clusters of flowers with a pleasant scent and red berries.

Evergreen Plants

Evergreen plants don’t shed their foliage in the fall or winter months such as deciduous plants do, that can help keep your lawn looking lively in the dreary winter season. When these evergreens also produce berries, your lawn receives a double dose of color. Holly (Ilex spp.) Consists of over 400 species of deciduous and evergreen plants that produce green leaf and stunning ornamental berries that attract birds. Based on the species, hollies grow in USDA zones 4 through 11. Several species of viburnum (Viburnum spp.) have evergreen foliage and showy berries. As an example, “Chindo” sweet viburnum (Viburnum awabuki “Chindo”) grows in USDA zones 7 through 11 with crimson grapes which switch to black and David viburnum (Viburnum davidii) grows in USDA zones 7 through 9 with turquoise blue berries that have a metallic sheen.

Green Plants with Edible Berries

Several species of plants produce green leaves and edible berries that may be grown in home gardens. Blackberry (Rubus fruticosa) and raspberry (Rubus idaeus) are just two plants that, depending on the species, rise in USDA zones 4 through 10. Currents and gooseberries are members of the Ribes genus, and possess unimpressive green leaves and delicious edible berries. Based on the species, currents and gooseberries grow in USDA zones 5 through 8. “Emerald” blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum “Emerald”) is a semi-evergreen shrub growing in USDA zones 8 through 10, with light green foliage and sweet blue-colored berries along with a low-chill requirement.

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How to Protect Tomato Plants From the Hot Sun

Tomatoes are among the most favorite vegetable garden plants in the usa, but can be tricky to induce to fruit where summers are really hot. If your plants are suffering from issues like blossom end rot, or they simply refuse to make fruit, it is likely they are overheated or water stressed. Several tactics have been developed by gardeners to help offset the effects of the hot sun on tomatoes, from liberally applying mulch to protecting plants with shade cloths.

Apply around 4 inches of mulch around your plants without covering their leaves. Supply smaller plants using a mulch-free zone directly around their stems until they are tall enough that not one of their leaves is below the mulch line. Adding mulch as they grow is another good way to keep tomatoes mulched without affecting their development.

Train your tomatoes to a tomato cage to allow them to provide themselves with adequate shade. Wind the vines throughout the cage to generate a plant which is more erect — the tomato plant’s own leaves will shade the plant from sunlight.

Water tomatoes frequently, as often as twice daily for containerized plants. Maintaining the soil moist helps cool the plant’s origins, and deep watering encourages them to grow straight down into levels of soil that are less influenced by heat.

Insert a 30 to 50 percent shade cloth or a white piece of cloth that works well, like cheesecloth, to a frame built above your tomato plants. Leave enough space between the tomato plants and the cloth to allow lots of workspace and encourage good airflow or your plants may develop fungal diseases.

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How to Prune Oriental Lilies

Talk about a fantastic investment. Plant one Oriental lily bulb (Lilium spp.) In a garden in U.S. Department of Agriculture plant hardiness zones 5 through 9 and delight in a large cluster of flowering stems which reappear like magic every spring. Oriental lilies are accurate lilies and also have stiff stalks around 4 feet tall, topped with showy blooms with an intoxicating fragrance. The many cultivars offer you a range of flower colors and bloom times, so with a little planning, your garden may be overshadowed by brilliant Oriental lilies all summer. These stunning plants need minimal pruning, giving you time to sit back and smell the flowers.

Disinfect your lawn clippers with denatured alcohol until you cut flowers to get an arrangement. Select stems containing multiple buds, including one grass that’s only beginning to open. Don’t cut too deeply down the stalk — the remaining stems and foliage will assist the plant collect the nutrients for blooming the next spring.

Prune off flower heads when they start to fade by cutting the hinge just below the blossom. Deadheading maintains the plant tidy and stops the Oriental lily from moving its energy to producing seed.

Remove any dead stalks at ground level once you notice them. Stalks may get knocked about by wind, pets or children. If possible, salvage the flowering top of the stalk to get a flower arrangement.

Water and feed Oriental lily plants after the last blossoms have faded and avoid pruning during this period. Bulb plants have to recharge their batteries after flowering so they have the saved energy required for blooming the next spring. After the leaves and stalks have completely withered, prune them off at ground level.

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