Toilet Layout Dimensions

Bathroom design requires that a lot of fixtures be packaged into a place that’s typically on the smallish side. The International Residential Code, on which many local construction codes are based, specifies dimensions that restrict where you can place bathroom fittings, along with the National Kitchen and Bath Association presents guidelines for great bathroom design that need much more room.

Door Spacing

The IRC needs bathroom door openings be 24 inches wide. The NKBA is much more conservative, recommending the obvious opening of a doorway be at least 32 inches wide, which demands a doorway width of 34 inches. To comply with the Americans with Disabilities Act, a toilet doorway must have a clear opening of 32 inches. The NKBA additionally recommends that no door, when available, should interfere with the functioning of any other doorway or the secure and comfortable use of any toilet fixture.

Sink Location

The IRC requires clear floor space of at least 21 inches in front of toilet sinks; the NKBA recommends at least 30 inches. The IRC says a sink must be placed so its centerline is at least 15 inches from any wall and its border is no closer than 4 inches from any wall or other sink; the centerlines of dual sinks must be at least 30 inches apart. The NKBA recommends 20 inches between a sink’s centerline and the wall and 36 inches between the centerlines of dual sinks.

Tubs and Showers

The IRC specifies 24 inches of clear space in front of showers and 21 inches in front of bathtubs; the NKBA recommends increasing both dimensions to 30 inches. The minimum interior size to get a shower, according to the IRC, is 30 inches square, but the NKBA recommends at least 36 inches square. The code says that a 30-inch disc must fit inside the shower, thus a square shower with an angled doorway at one corner needs to measure about 32 inches on a side to meet that requirement.

Toilet Territory

The IRC says there should be 15 inches between the centerline of a toilet and any wall, fixture or barrier; the NKBA recommends bumping that measurement around 18 inches. Clear floor space in front of the toilet should be at least 21 inches based on the IRC, 30 inches based on the NKBA. After the toilet is enclosed in another space, that space must be at least 30 inches by 60 inches to satisfy the IRC specifications. The NKBA says that the enclosure should be at least 36 inches by 66 inches, not including any distance required by an inward-swinging door.

Ceiling Heights

A toilet’s overhead measurement might also restrict where it is possible to put fixtures inside the area. The IRC requires a minimum ceiling height of 80 inches over all fittings and over the required clear floor space in front of fittings. Showers must also have a minimum 80-inch ceiling height above their entire 30-by-30-inch interior space.

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How to Propagate Edible Berry Plants From Cuttings

With the addition of varieties of berries which ripen at different times of the year, your garden can furnish different berries from spring through fall. Beginning most berry plants from cuttings isn’t difficult. However, be mindful that patented varieties can not be propagated without a permit. The key methods of starting berries out of cuttings are, rooting cuttings out of runners, roots or wood, and burying canes in soil while they’re still attached to the plant.


In late summer or early fall, bend a flexible blackberry (Rubus spp.) Cane into the floor and cover the bent part with soil, where roots will form. Dig up the suspended cane the following spring, then cut it out of the mother plant and transplant it into the garden. You can even take root cuttings. Dig pencil-sized roots in midwinter to spring up, cut them into 3- to 6-inch lengths and plant them in pots or right where you need them to grow. Paul Vossen, of the University of California Cooperative Extension Service, advises against house propagation of blackberries, despite its own simplicity. Blackberries often carry viruses or fungal infections, and it is ideal to purchase certified disease-free plants by a known source. Blackberries grow in U.S. Department of Agriculture plant hardiness zones 4 through 9.


Raspberries (Rubus spp.) Come in many colours — red or yellow (equally Rubus idaeus), black (Rubus occidentalis) and purple (Rubus neglectus). Raspberries are hardy in USDA zones 3 through 9, depending on the species and cultivar. Root raspberry canes as for blackberries. Again, it’s suggested to purchase disease-free plants. Plant raspberries 300 feet from blackberries or wild desserts. Avoid soil in which eggplant (Solanum melongena), potatoes (Solanum tuberosum) or berries (Lycopericon esculentum) have grown.


Southern highbush blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum) do best in areas with mild winters. “Misty,””Reveille” and”O’Neal” are hardy in USDA zones 7 through 10, and”Sharpblue” climbs in zones 7 through 11. Propagate highbush blueberries out of hardwood cuttings, which do not require frequent misting as do softwood cuttings. Take one-year-old wood shoots about pencil thickness from twisted plants in early spring before leaf buds unfurl. Cut them into 6-inch lengths, and put several up to half of their length in 4-inch nursery containers full of equal parts moistened perlite and peat. Set the containers in shade and water them each week, more frequently after leaves open or during warm weather. Containers shouldn’t dry out. Cuttings begin to root during late spring and early summer. Transfer frozen cuttings into individual pots and grow them for planting out the next spring.


Strawberry plants (Fragaria x ananassa) are hardy in USDA zones 5 through 8 and grow as cool season annuals in zones 9 and 10. Plants create runners with individual plantlets at the end. Remove cuttings from runners when they have two fully developed leaves and small roots at the bottom of the cuttingedge. Put each cutting into a 3-inch kettle full of half peat and half perlite. Keep cuttings evenly moist in the color until they root. Alternatively, leave the clipping attached to the runner, then put it along with a pot full of flashing medium, and then grind it down with a bit of bent wire. Cut the runner after the plantlet roots.

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How Long Does a Pond Pump Have to Be on Each Day?

A pump and a filter are essential to keep pond health. A well-maintained pond adds value to a home, and although a huge pond with fish requires more upkeep than a little pond, it’s well worth the extra effort, providing movement, colour and a dramatic landscape component. 24 hours every day should run to ensure the pond water circulates throughout the filter.

Vacuum Function

Both types work in precisely the same manner or sit based on the pump type, although A pump might be submerged in the water of the pond. The pump uses spinning blades, known as impellers, to pull pond water through a screenlike intake and expel the water through an outlet pipe. Ordinarily, a huge pond has an external pump and also a pond or water garden has a submersible pump. Any sort of pump requires maintenance of its intake filter and screen to avoid clogging.

Vacuum Size

Prior to buying a pond pump, compute your pond’s water capability to determine the size of pump necessary to circulate all the pond’s water throughout the pump every a couple of hours. Formulas will be able to help you decide your pond’s water capacity in gallons of pond measurements taken in feet. The formulation for a rectangular pond is length x width x depth x 7.48 = gallons. For a round pond, the formulation is radius x radius x 3.14 x average depth x 7.48 = gallons. The formulation for an irregularly shaped pond requires dividing the pond to easier-to-calculate shapes, figuring the water capacity in gallons for each of those shapes and then multiplying the total sum of those gallons by 231 rather than 7.48.

Running Cost

A pond which has a pump or electric equipment requires electricity, and so it is going to increase your electric price. Some pumps cost less to operate than other pumps. Reduce the price of pump operation using a pump which moves the essential amount of pond water while using minimum amount drops; a watt is a dimension of electrical use. Calculate the price of running a pump by applying this formula: Divide the drops by 1,000, then multiply that amount by 24 hours, the amount of days per operation and electricity price. An example is: 300 watts/1000 x 24 hours x 30 days x 0.08 for electricity price = $17.28 because the cost to operate the pump for 30 days.

Other Considerations

Mosquitoes can be a problem when a pond is in the landscape, but mosquitoes lay eggs in just stagnant water. A pump may continue to keep the pond water moving, deterring mosquitoes from laying eggs in the water. Even a small amount of moving water can stop mosquitoes from laying eggs. If a pump isn’t feasible, put in a fountain bubbler to keep water moving.

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How to Clean Grease Spots From Knotty Pine Walls

Like most of wall coverings, knotty pine may become stained from kitchen grease and years of dirty fingers. Even though you might have to sand and seal unfinished knotty pine to remove tough grease stains, you frequently can scrub them off from paneling that has a finish already implemented on it.

Vinegar and Water

Dust the wall with a microfiber cloth or wax it with an upholstery attachment.

Mix 1 cup white vinegar in 1 gallon of water. Fill a spray bottle with the solution, and shake it to mix.

Spray the walls generously with the solution and permit it to sit for 15 minutes.

Scrub the grease stain with a soft sponge, applying more detergent solution as needed.

Melamine Eraser

Dust the wall with a microfiber cloth or wax it with an upholstery attachment.

Dampen a melamine-foam eraser with water and then squeeze it out.

Scrub the grease stain with the eraser, rinsing as necessary, until the stain is gone.

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How to Clean Nail Polish In a Marble Sink

Nail polish is a form of lacquer, and a number of chemicals dissolve it, including xylene, toluene and acetone; the latter happens to be the main ingredient in nail polish remover. Acetone removes nail polish from many surfaces, such as your marble sink, but because marble is porous, there can still be some discoloration once you’ve gotten off the bulk of the lacquer-based item. You can remove this discoloration using a gentle bleach made with household cleaning solutions. In order for the bleach to work correctly, it needs time to soak in.

Empty the sink and then allow the marble dry.

Dampen a rag with acetone and dab it on the stain to remove whatever material is on the surface of the marble. Repeat until the rag no more functions the same shade as the nail polish when you dab.

Moisten another rag using acetone and place it on top of the stain. Leave it there for about 5 minutes, then flip the rag over, moisten it with all this arc and wipe out up to the stain as possible.

Add an ounce of 3 percent hydrogen peroxide to a 1/2 cup of water and then stir in a teaspoon of a mild detergent. Soak a rag using the solution, lay the rag onto the stain and then cover it with another moist rag.

Leave the poultice on the stain until the discoloration has woken out. Remove the poultice, rinse the region with clean water and allow it to dry.

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How to Acquire a Water Circle Off Wood Furniture

No matter how much you try to maintain wood furniture looking its best, at some point, somebody forgets to use a beverage coaster. While it may not be a big deal each time, occasionally lifting the cup or glass reveals a ring on the timber which does not go away on its own. Don’t get alarmed — this once-beautiful wood finish isn’t ruined. That white ring is removed by household products without your having to shake the furniture.

Hot air from a hair dryer within the water ring when the ring is only a day or two older, maintaining the hair dryer on a low or warm, not hot, placing. Occasionally hot atmosphere is sufficient to remove present moisture in the end once the mark remains refreshing.

Pour into your hand. Dampen a cloth with a little water, then dab the cloth to the baking soda in your hand. Rub the moist baking soda . Wipe baking soda with a damp paper towel dry the area.

Lay a dab of mayonnaise on a soft cloth. Rub the mayonnaise over the water ring, then after the wood grain management, until the stain fades off. If the stain seems stubborn, let the mayonnaise sit for a half hour or or so before rubbing it on the ring. Clean with a damp cloth followed by a dry cloth.

Squirt a small amount of toothpaste on the surface that is . Rub the toothpaste on the white ring with a very fine piece of steel wool until the stain disappears. Wipe the toothpaste away with a moist soft cloth, followed by a dry cloth.

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The way to Remove Black Heel Marks on Vinyl Flooring

Black heel marks destroy the look of vinyl flooring, and ordinary cleansers will not touch them. Home treatments vary from rubbing the mark with a tennis ball to using automotive solvents, not the ideal option. You have alternatives when you utilize a common household item that’s both safe and effective. But better yet, you can put a stop to black heel marks forever with a simple solution most anyone has around the home.

Baking Soda Solution

Scatter enough baking soda on your ground to cover the heel mark. Rub the baking soda over the mark using a wet paper towel, with the same stress as when polishing silverware. Make the baking soda into a wet paste. When the mark is gone, then remove the rest baking soda with a paper towel, and then rinse the spot with plain water and let dry. To restore the shine, buff the area with a clean, dry cloth.

Sole Solution

New shoes with dark, rubber-like soles are the most prone to depart heel marks. When you notice a new pair of shoes leaving marks, coat the outer edges of the soles generously using clear nail polish. Allow the nail polish to dry and cure for at least 24 hours before wearing the shoes inside your house.

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Surface Prep Requirements When Laying Tile

With an abundance of colors, designs and sizes to pick from, tile features custom style and durability for floors, countertops and walls. Tile is a high-end end, due in part to the high labor costs of installing the shingles. If you’re familiar with basic tile setting tools, then you can save yourself money by laying your own shingles. Preparing the surface correctly can mean the difference between a tile job that lasts a life or tile that comes and breaks loose.

Proper Floor Structure

Once the grout sets, a new tile floor is a good sheet, along with any movement of the floor under can cause the ground to decipher. Because of this, it isn’t a good idea to install a tile floor over floor trussesthat can be made to move or “deflect.” A traditional floor consisting of joists offers a much better foundation for tile.

What Lies Beneath

Tiling is an alternative for covering old flooring that would be tricky to eliminate, like an existing tile floor. This is a frequent practice during remodeling projects, however, the best-case situation is to lay new tiles directly on underlayment. Concrete slabs are acceptable for laying tile so long as they are flat and never crumbling. Exterior-grade plywood or cementboard provide optimum surfaces for laying shingles. Carpeting and loose or bubbling linoleum must be removed, as must old tile that isn’t well-adhered into the substrate below.

Tiling Countertops

Laying tile on countertops takes a moisture barrier to protect the plywood or fiberboard that rests on the cabinet base. An effective means to accomplish this would be to set a 4-mil polyethylene sheet above the plywood base, then put cement board on top of that. Wrap the polyethylene above the edges of the plywood to guard it and install a narrow strip of cement board along the edge to hold it in position. Without adequate moisture protection, water, especially around the sink, can seep through grout joints and saturate the plywood base, causing it to delaminate, swell and crack the countertop.

Walls, Showers and Tub Surrounds

Tile does not need to be around a flat surface; tiled walls add custom fashion to bathrooms, mudrooms and playrooms. For walls not subject to moisture, then you can tile above ground, but remove old wallpaper. Greenboard, a type of moisture-treated drywall, is acceptable for walls that will not experience frequent splashes of water. If you’re masonry inside shower walls that will often be wet, then install cement board and tape seams with fiberglass mesh tape made for cement board (do not use standard fiberglass drywall tape) along with mortar. Utilize a shower pan liner on a bathtub floor before laying shingles.

Wash Surface

A clean surface is crucial for laying tile. Vacuum or sweep away all debris and dust. Remove loose floor tiles and fill the voids with thinset. If you’re tiling over existing glazed tile, then scuff the surface of the old shingles, either with sandpaper or with a chemical sanding alternative, to remove the shine for the mortar or thinset to efficiently adhere.

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Outdoor Green Plants With Berries

Outdoor plants with attractive green leaf add color to your yard when acting as a focal point, drop, barrier or privacy screen. Several species of the stunning plants also produce showy berries that incorporate a blast of color to the region. When choosing which outside green plant to develop, consider the growing demands of the plant as well as also the needs of your garden.

Sun-Loving Plants

Sun-loving green plants with berries thrive in outdoor places that have eight or more hours of sunlight a day. “Profusion” beautyberry (Callicarpa bodinieri “Profusion”) is a breathtaking deciduous shrub growing in U.S. Department of Agriculture plant hardiness zones 5 through 8, reaching six feet tall. This sun-loving plant contains large green leaf and purple-pink blossoms. In the fall, clusters of violet cosmetic berries show up on the branches. Found in sunny regions in USDA zones 6 through 9, “Mohave” pyracantha (Pyracantha x “Mohave”) is a quick growing shrub that may grow as tall as 12 feet. It has deep green leaves and masses of bright orangish-red berries in the fall.

Shade-Loving Plants

Green plants with strawberries will brighten up shaded gardens with their attractive foliage and vibrant fruit. “Rozannie” Japanese aucuba (Aucuba japonica “Rozannie”) requires complete shade in USDA zones 6 through 10 to develop properly. It’s a compact form, reaching 3 feet tall and wide, and produces deep green, shiny foliage and bright red berries that appear in the fall. Reeves skimmia (Skimmia reevesiana) is just another shade-loving plant with dark green leathery foliage. This compact 2-foot-tall shrub grows in USDA zones 7 through 9, bearing clusters of flowers with a pleasant scent and red berries.

Evergreen Plants

Evergreen plants don’t shed their foliage in the fall or winter months such as deciduous plants do, that can help keep your lawn looking lively in the dreary winter season. When these evergreens also produce berries, your lawn receives a double dose of color. Holly (Ilex spp.) Consists of over 400 species of deciduous and evergreen plants that produce green leaf and stunning ornamental berries that attract birds. Based on the species, hollies grow in USDA zones 4 through 11. Several species of viburnum (Viburnum spp.) have evergreen foliage and showy berries. As an example, “Chindo” sweet viburnum (Viburnum awabuki “Chindo”) grows in USDA zones 7 through 11 with crimson grapes which switch to black and David viburnum (Viburnum davidii) grows in USDA zones 7 through 9 with turquoise blue berries that have a metallic sheen.

Green Plants with Edible Berries

Several species of plants produce green leaves and edible berries that may be grown in home gardens. Blackberry (Rubus fruticosa) and raspberry (Rubus idaeus) are just two plants that, depending on the species, rise in USDA zones 4 through 10. Currents and gooseberries are members of the Ribes genus, and possess unimpressive green leaves and delicious edible berries. Based on the species, currents and gooseberries grow in USDA zones 5 through 8. “Emerald” blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum “Emerald”) is a semi-evergreen shrub growing in USDA zones 8 through 10, with light green foliage and sweet blue-colored berries along with a low-chill requirement.

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