Lime Application Rates for Pecan Trees

Soil pH, a measure of the acidity or alkalinity of soil, determines that the capacity of a plant to take in sulfur, phosphorous, potassium and other nutrients. Adding lime to acidic soil makes it more alkaline. The recommended soil pH varies with the species of plant. Since land pH varies by climate and geography there’s not any normal application speed for all pecan trees. Pecans (Carya illinoensis) have been grown commercially in the warm, humid climate of the Southeastern United States but can be increased in U.S. Department of Agriculture plant hardiness zones 5 through 9.

Soil pH and Pecan Trees

Soil pH is measured on a scale of 1 to 14. Some less than 7 is acidic or “sour” soil; acidic soils are usually found in areas with heavy rainfall. Some over 7 is alkaline or “sweet” soil; alkaline soils are usually found in arid climates with little rainfall. Pecan trees grow best in a soil pH of 5.5 to 6.5. If the pH is below that, adding lime will raise the number. Most garden supply centres sell soil test kits that may measure soil pH adequately.

Lime Kind

Powdered calcium carbonate, commonly called dolomitic lime, is made by grinding stone and is usually utilized to adjust soil pH to get pecan trees. The fineness of dolomitic lime powder is measured from the magnitude of the mesh the particles may pass through. Higher mesh numbers indicate comparable particles of lime that dissolve in the soil more quickly; for example, 40- to 50-mesh particles will dissolve in the soil more quickly and raise pH more quickly than 8- to 20-mesh particles. Dolomitic lime is often sold in the shape of pellets made from finely ground stone. They are easier to propagate and therefore are less dusty, but they’re more expensive and slower to alter soil pH. Should you use pellets, you should till the soil a couple of days after you use the pellets when they’ve had a chance to soften. You can sometimes buy lime suspended in a combination of water and particles of clay. While this is not difficult to apply, it doesn’t work any quicker than lime in a dust form.

How to Insert Lime

The right time to apply lime to the soil for pecan trees is prior to planting them. Commercial growers applying lime to many acres of pecan trees receive their land tested to acquire precise rates of program. A home gardener planting a few trees can mix dolomitic lime powder completely into the top 6 to 8 inches of soil and test the soil until the pH is in the optimal range. Even though a pH of 5.5 to 6.5 is great for a pecan tree, even if your soil pH is naturally between 5 and 7, adding lime won’t likely improve the development of your tree.

Lowering Soil pH

If your soil pH is above the recommended range for pecan trees, you can lower it by adding elemental sulfur. Apply the sulfur into the planting bed into the thickness of the pecan tree’s root zone until the soil pH is between 5.5 and 6.5. When applying it into an existing tree, then remove the soil from around the roots, then add sulfur till you reach the perfect soil pH and return the soil around the tree.

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How to Plant Tomato & Cabbage With

Most annual vegetables have another plant that’s believed to be a beneficial companion when grown in the same row, including tomatoes and cabbage. Companion planting will help to conserve moisture, supply nutrients to the soil and diminish disease and pest management without using substances. Quite often, companion planting increases vegetable production, resulting in a greater crop yield. For best results, cabbage plants should be cultivated by seed, while tomatoes are best planted as seedlings. They both prefer 8 hours of sun exposure per day and well-draining soil. Cabbage may be harvested twice a year in fall and spring, whereas tomatoes are harvested in the late summer through autumn, based on the variety.

Plant cabbage seeds to a depth of one-half inch, 12 inches apart, in early spring when soil temperatures have been above 40 degrees Fahrenheit. Water thoroughly using a garden hose set on a fine mist to a depth of at least 6 inches after planting.

Fertilize cabbage plants by hand sprinkling 5-10-10 granular fertilizer on each side of the row, one month after sowing the seeds. Continue fertilizing the cabbage plants once a month until the first crop. Follow all of manufacture directions listed on the fertilizer containers label.

Harvest each mature cabbage head from the plant using a sharp knife in the late spring, 63 to 88 days after planting by cutting in the lowest point possible, leaving the outer leaves attached to the stalk. Leaving the leaves will guarantee a second harvest to your cabbage plants which are left in the row prior to transplanting the tomato crops. When the cabbage head feels solid and firm to the touch it is mature and ready for harvest.

Eliminate every other cabbage plant from the ground after the first harvest, using a shovel, digging deep enough into the soil to extract the entire root system. Shake off as much soil as possible from the origins. Transplant 8-inch tall tomato seedlings between every present cabbage plant one-half inch deeper than the cover of the root ball. Lightly pack the indigenous soil around the root ball of the plant. Water thoroughly using a garden hose set on a nice mist after planting, to a depth of at least 6 inches.

Stake the 2-foot-tall tomato plant, then inserting a 2-by-2-inch, 5-foot tall wooden stake 1 foot into the floor and one-fourth inch apart from the stalk of the tomato plant. Tie the plant to the wooden stake freely with tie tape each 6 inches because it grows.

Fertilize tomato crops in transplant time sprinkling 5-10-10 granular fertilizer on each side of the row. Begin fertilizing the tomatoes and cabbage together once a month afterwards from early spring through fall.

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The way to Landscape a gorgeous Front Yard

The front yard is the welcome mat to your house. Landscaping a beautiful front yard can be as straightforward or elaborate a job as you would like. Decide whether you would like a low-maintenance area filled with native grasses, an intensive edible landscape with bright bursts of shade, a tree-centric park-like space, or simply a turf-covered zone surrounded by conventional flowerbeds. With your notion in your mind, you may create a front yard that makes you glad to come home.

Select trees with multiple seasons of interest. Put a dwarf flowering fruit tree that provides early spring blooms, summer fruit and autumn color near your front door. Use majestic shade trees, like oak and maple, for sculptural interest, stunning architectural and leaves function. Choose trees initially, since they will find out the amount of space you have remaining, and will change light conditions depending on their placement.

Coordinate front yard shrub options to ensure that something is always either in blossom, bearing fruit or berries, evergreen or supplying visual interest through leaf texture or growth habit. Put shrubs toward the middle of island garden beds or use them to double as a privacy screen around the periphery of this yard. Leave some gaps available in privacy screens so others may enjoy your landscape and to create a feeling of openness. Include shrubs known as homes for birds in your area if you like bird watching.

Select perennial plants with features which you admire, taking into consideration their bloom times, textures and colours. Find the tallest perennials toward the middle of island beds or the back of boundaries in order that they do not mask shorter ones. Space perennials far enough apart that they have lots of room to fill in as they grow without looking crowded.

Choose a colour scheme should you become overwhelmed with the selection of plants out there. Design an all-white booming front yard for graceful unity. Mix hot tropical shades, like pink, orange and red, for a happy, fiery atmosphere. Pairing contrasting blossom colours, like yellow with purple, creates a dynamic look.

Add annuals to fill in the gaps between perennial plants. Choose shapes and colors that play off of their permanent features. Experiment with unusual varieties, comprehending that annuals last just a year.

Apply mulches and ground covers to protect the soil from temperature fluctuation, suppress weeds and create a finished look. Pick mulches that you find appealing, laying them 2 to 3 inches thick around the base of plants.

Accessorize to personalize the space. Hang a swing or birdfeeders from large tree branches to encourage life and energy. Include benches to support friends and neighbors to linger. Put a birdbath near a window so that you may enjoy it from inside or outside. Install a piece of garden art, like a vibrant windmill or glass bottle tree, to proclaim your free-spirited nature or a stone sculpture to suggest classical elegance. Pick fencing that plays up your style. Add lanterns to enjoy your lovely front yard after sunset.

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Yard Sprinkler System Parts Explained

The normal yard sprinkler system does a lot of its work underground and out of sight, but despite its cryptic nature, the performance of a fundamental sprinkler system is not intricate. The system consists of just a couple of distinct types of parts, all of which have the simple objective of transferring water to the perfect place at the ideal moment.


In most modern yard sprinkler systems, an electronic timer controls the flow of water from the main water supply to the system. It determines when the system turns on and off, and it controls the valves which determine which regions of the system function at a given time. A normal timer permits you to decide on a regular watering program, and some timers allow various areas of the program to follow unique schedules. Advanced timers may have moisture sensors to automatically determine when to close the system off and to suspend the watering program when it’s raining.

Control Valves

A collection of valves control the flow of water through the sprinkler system. Because water pressure is generally inadequate to run the whole system at the same time, the following valves have been utilized to split the system into zones that are run independently of one another. In systems using an automatic timer, the timer controls the valves, opening and closing them according to the programmed watering program, so that every zone is watered when required. The valves are connected to the timer with wires through which the control signals have been transmitted, and the valves are often grouped together in an arrangement, referred to as a manifold, to minimize wiring and make maintenance more convenient.

Pipes and Risers

A system of horizontal PVC pipes carries the water from the primary water supply to the control valves and from the valves into the sprinkler heads. Short vertical pipes called risers extend upward from the concrete pipes at places where sprinkler heads have been needed, and the heads have been attached directly to the risers.

Sprinkler Heads

Sprinkler heads have been positioned around the yard to provide full coverage of the lawn and planting beds. The most frequent types of sprinkler heads retract to sit at or slightly below grade level when they aren’t functioning, but when the mind’s zone is activated, water pressure causes the head to pop up and spray water. Sprinkler heads come in a selection of types designed for various applications. Oscillating heads rotate as they function and cover a huge area, while stationary heads spray water at a pattern which may vary from a full circle into a hammer that is narrow and can be told to cover a specific place. Low-flow or drip heads have been designed to deliver modest quantities of water straight into planting beds to reduce waste.

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The way to Keep Gravel from Your Yard

When you spend money on gravel to get your driveway or garden trails, it may be annoying to find these small rocks spreading into your lawn. First off, you will want to teach the kids that these stones aren’t right for throwing, but secondly, you can build some edging between your gravel path and the lawn. You can use rubber or aluminum landscape edging that sticks up above the ground, or opt for sturdier wood posts.


Assess the region from one end of this gravel path to another. Buy edging material accordingly.

Dig a trench across the gravel trail, about 2 inches wide and 3 inches deep, or heavy enough so that your edging material will stick up about 2 to 3 inches from the bottom.

Insert your edging material into the trench, replace the dirt about it and then tamp it down.

Timber Posts

Assess the region from one end of this gravel path to another. Explain how high you want your timber edging to be and purchase the appropriate quantity of timber posts for your desired height and span. Two timber rods piled on top of one another is most likely large enough to keep most gravel included.

Remove the grass from the region where the timbers will lie to enable the timbers to sit down straight at soil level. This may require tilling or sod removal, based upon your site.

Lay down the first layer of timbers, end-to-end.

Stagger another layer of timbers so that the center of the top timbers meet the seam of the lower timbers. Cut end bits to size using a hand saw or chain saw.

Drill 1.5-inch holes into the upper timbers and through the lower timbers, creating a hole all the way through the very best timber and nearly all the way through the bottom timber. Rank the holes about 6 inches from the ends of the best timbers, making two holes at every top timber.

Drop rebar into the holes you created through the bottom and top timbers, to stabilize the very best lumber and keep it in place.

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How to Install Recessed Lights, Before or After Painting?

Although it is possible to paint the ceiling following the installation of recessed lighting fixtures is finished, the painting will move faster and easily if it is done prior to the installation of their fittings. The paint job will also be neater and much more professional-looking if it is done ahead. Some work needs to be performed before painting, however, to avoid sullying a brand new paint job.

Make the Cutouts from the Ceiling

Turn off the breaker to the lighting circuit you’ll be joining the new lights to, and check with a noncontact voltage tester to be sure you switched off the right rims. Painting the ceiling prior to installing recessed lighting fittings is the preferred plan because you would need to remove the fittings complete trim to paint right up to the ceiling opening. Preparing the ceiling for painting begins with locating where the lights are to be set up and cutting the gaps in the ceiling’s finish. The recessed lighting kits that you buy will include a template that makes outlining the area to be cutout a snap. Running cable through a ceiling may also be dirty work, so run the new cable between lighting locations and in the lighting places to the switch before painting to keep from getting fingerprints in your freshly painted ceiling.

Paint the Ceiling

Apply two coats of latex paint on the ground. Latex paint dries in four hours, which means you need to be able to cut the holes, then run the cable and implement the two coats of paint to the initial day of the two-day project. Of course, the period you may need depends on your expertise, the size of this room as well as the amount of lights you are installing.

Installing the Lights

Combine all the lighting fixtures in parallel by attaching all the black and white fixture wires to the black and white wires in the newly installed cables using plastic wire nuts. Use a cable ripper or utility knife to remove the cables’ outer coats and subsequently strip 3/4 inch of insulation in the sealed wires. After you have put the covers to the lighting fixtures’ junction boxes, then you are ready to put in them in the ceiling gaps. The method of securing them in the ceiling will be contingent on the fittings you buy, but generally they will snap into position.

Finishing Touches

Next, set up the lighting fixture’s trim and bulbs and flip the electricity on. The method used to secure the trim to the recessed fixture will vary slightly from one style of fixture to another, but this normally involves spring clips of some sort. Fortunately, all these lighting kits have detailed instructions about how to install them.

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Trimming Scuppernongs

Scuppernong is arguably the most well-known assortment of muscadine grape (Vitis rotundifolia) climbed through U. S. Department of Agriculture plant hardiness zones 6 through 9. This fast-growing, hardy native American grape is a great selection for home gardeners who need lots of big grapes for making juice, jelly or wine. Even though they require less maintenance than bunching grapes, muscadines have to be pruned aggressively to keep them in perfect shape — also much old timber is detrimental to fruit production.

Prune a newly planted muscadine grape to a major stem with no more than two or three buds emerging from it. Allow the plant to climb to the very top of its support the first year, removing all but the strongest length of vine once it goes dormant in the late fall or early winter. Remove any portion of the major vine that reaches over a few inches past the cover of the wire at dormancy, to induce the formation of unwanted shoots.

Allow new buds to develop on surface of your vine at a 90-degree angle from the main back during the next season. Select the best two to four buds, depending upon your trellis style, and get rid of the remainder as soon as they are approximately 2 inches long. Remove any buds that develop below the top of your grape trellis or so are clustered close to other buds. Allow both to four sections you kept to develop along the surface of the trellis in various directions to their entire length during the next season.

Thin the buds that form along the lateral parts of the vine in the preceding year to no longer than approximately six, spaced evenly along the length of every section, early in the spring of the next season. At the close of the season, remove these six sections of vine to support fruiting the following year — muscadines fruit only on new wood, so these old fruiting canes are a naturally drag on the plant’s sources. Continue removing fruiting canes at the end of each growing season for the life of the muscadine vine.

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How to Pick the Best Feather Pillow

Getting a fantastic night’s sleep is also an important part of maintaining your health. A key part of this is picking a pillow that permits you to break your head in comfort. For those seeking a fluffy, soft pillow filled with natural materials, pillows filled with epoxy fit the bill. To pick the ideal pillow for you, look for one with high-quality materials and a manufacturer’s warranty.

Feather Types

Pillows are stuffed with feathers or down, or even a combination of both. Down is the insulating material beneath the masks that retains a bird cozy and warm. Down feathers are very soft and fluffy, while the bird’s outer masks are more difficult with sharp quills. Better feather pillows include all down or a majority of down feathers. In general, pure down pillows are of higher quality than other feather pillows and tend to last longer and be resilient through the years. Some higher quality pillows come with a warranty from the manufacturer, so you’ll have peace of mind if your pillow doesn’t function well.

The Fluff Factor

How fluffy a pillow is depends on the fill power of the pillow. Fill power indicates the amount of space that the ounce of the downward will fill in cubic inches, according to the Down & Feather Company. A higher fill power indicates that the pillow contains down from a mature bird. This down is larger than that by a younger bird. Larger down masks mean more height or loft to the pillow. Normally, pillows using a higher fill power are fluffier. They also tend to last longer and wear better than pillows with a lower fill power, making them a better investment.

Thread Count

The thread count of a pillow indicates the tightness of its fabric. A higher thread count ensures that the fabric is more tightly knit than fabric using a lesser count. Tightly woven fabric doesn’t allow the feathers or down within the pillow to escape through small spaces in the material. This is especially essential for pillows filled with feathers, whose quills can easily poke through fabric using a low thread count. These quills are sharp and can scratch your skin if they come through the fabric, which is something that you definitely don’t need when you settle down for a night of rest. A pillow with higher thread count will also feel smooth and soft to the touch.


How firm you would like your feather pillow to be will decide which pillow is best for you. This is something special to each sleeper. A feather cushion’s stability is determine from the amount of feathers or down stuffed into it. The more ounces of feathers a pillow comprises, the firmer it will be, while fewer feathers lead to a softer pillow. If you are a side sleeper, you may prefer a heavier feather pillow, but if you are a back sleeper, then a slightly softer pillow could be your best bet, according to a report by CBS News. Stomach sleepers tend to need cozy, soft pillows that don’t elevate the mind too much.


If you have allergies, look for pillows filled with hypoallergenic feathers. The filling of the pillows is cleaned of any dust mites, dander and bacteria in the birds. While you may believe that a knitted pillow would include more allergens than just one with artificial fill, the contrary is actually true. In a study published in the June 2004 issue of “Clinical & Experimental Allergy,” pillows featuring artificial fibers included many more dust mites than feather pillows. A similar finding was published in the May 2000 issue of “Pediatric Allergy and Immunology,” showing feather pillows develop fewer allergens over time than other types. That is because feather pillows have tightly woven covers to keep the masks intact.

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How to Convert a Dining Room to a Reading region

What could be more comforting than to curl up in a cozy chair with a good book or magazine that has just been dropped into your mailbox? But locating space to your reading area takes some idea. A dining room might just be an extra room if your living style doesn’t involve large families or entertaining. Developing a reading area from this square footage is a superb way to personalize your lifestyle and to turn your home into what works best for you personally.

Plan Ahead

Whether you’re converting another dining room, a dining area or a little space adjacent to a kitchen into a reading area, fulfilling your wish for a cozy, private sanctuary is not a difficult task. Know what you want to add inside the room, and plan ahead, utilizing furniture you might already have and scouting for extra bits in nearby thrift stores.

Dining Room Conversion

In case you have the luxury of another dining room but it’s wasted on a dining table you do not need, turn it into a reading area by moving comfortable furniture into the space. Pick a cozy reading chair, perhaps one that reclines in case your eyelids droop, and place a floor lamp nearby. Add a side table and magazine rack near the chair for convenience. Use the extra space for a little sofa and cocktail table in which novels and books can be exhibited, and place an area rug between the chair and sofa. Line the walls with bookcases, and include a writing table to finish your reading room.

Open Dining Area

Adjacent to your own kitchen and behind the countertop barstools might be an extra dining area that is superfluous to your demands. Even though it’s accessible to the kitchen, then you can make a cozy reading area with the appropriate furnishings and accessories. A comfortable chair with either tabletop or floor lighting, an ottoman and a side table is all you will need to accomplish your objectives. Wall space is perfect for a little bookcase, along with the floor, covered with a casual area rug, specifies your reading area.

Kitchen Reading Nook

A counter runs the length of the kitchen workspace and is lined with barstools. A dining area is nearby, or a dining room is round the corner. Continuing the length of this kitchen is just another eating area. Not all of them are necessary. Turn the kitchen area that’s designed for a casual dining table into a perfect reading area. Put two reading chairs in the corners, turned inward toward the middle. Put a little table between them using a reading lamp, and cover the floor space between the seats with a room rug. Reclining seats or chairs with ottomans work best. Utilize wall hangings and artwork that are more in tune with reading and solitude instead of being kitchen-oriented, and your reading area becomes a distance unto its own.

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Tenant's Rights When a Landlord Violates Residential Lease Laws

California law provides residential renters basic legal rights regardless of the terms of a lease agreement or the invoices of a landlord. Based on the situation, you are able to address a suspected violation of the rights as a tenant in several ways. You can file a complaint with a government agency, take your landlord to court or, in certain circumstances, use self-help remedies such as abandoning the lease unit.

Report to a Government Agency

Various government agencies oversee the activities of landlords and act on complaints to ensure that tenant rights aren’t violated. For example, on the state level, the California Department of Fair Employment and Housing is investigates and litigates housing discrimination complaints, including those associated with a prospective tenant’s effort to lease a residential unit. Local agencies are usually responsible for health related problems, such as pest management and habitability issues. If your landlord does not properly address such difficulties, it is possible to report your landlord to the local health agency. The agency will inspect the property and, if appropriate, issue a notice of violation with directions to the landlord to remedy the situation.

Repair and Deduct

If your rental unit sustains damages that affect its habitability, you are eligible to fix the hurt yourself and deduct the expense of repair from the rent under certain circumstances. The “repair-and-deduct” remedy is only accessible after you first notify your landlord of these required repairs and give the landlord a reasonable time to make the repairs. Under California law, 30 days is presumed to be a reasonable time. You can use the repair-and-deduct remedy if the landlord fails to make the repairs. This remedy has added limitations: the repairs cannot be more expensive than one month’s rent and you cannot use the remedy over twice in a 12-month interval.

Abandon the Rental Unit

As an alternative to the repair-and-deduct remedy, it is possible to abandon the lease unit. This remedy is usually used when the cost of repairing the settlement is greater than one month’s rent. You must also give the landlord notice and a reasonable time to fix the harm as you have to with the repair-and-deduct remedy. When this remedy is used properly, you are no longer responsible for paying rent after the unit is vacated. The vital point is the harm to the unit must leave it unfit for habitation.

Civil Lawsuit

You have the right to take your landlord to court any time that your rights as a tenant have been violated. This includes suing your landlord though you still occupy the rental unit. For example, if the landlord failed to create needed roof repairs and your own personal possessions sustained water damage during a rain storm, you can sue your landlord for the damage to your house whilst still renting your unit. Also, you can sue your landlord after vacating the unit, which usually takes place when the landlord wrongfully withholds a few or all of your security deposit.

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